The response must be 250 words and use at least 2 scholarly citation(s) in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include texts, articles, presentations, the Bible, blogs, videos, etc.
Textbook: Taylor, R. W., & Swanson, C. R. (2019). Terrorism, intelligence, and homeland security (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson. ISBN: 9780134818146.
At the turn of the twentieth century, a spate of terrorist attacks occurred in the United States (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). For instance, Taylor and Swanson (2019) add that in 1910, explosives exploded at the offices of the Los Angeles Times, killing 21, a blast at the United States Senate to deter the U.S. from entering World War I, and a bombing on Wall Street in 1920 caused casualties. According to Taylor and Swanson (2019), America has historically had a low concern about terrorism despite these attacks. Taylor and Swanson (2019) add that, between the 1960s and 9/11/01, several significant radical movements existed in the United States, and several terrorist attacks on Americans were launched. Taylor and Swanson (2019) mention that Iranian Muslim fanatics seized the United States embassy in Tehran in 1979 and held American’s captive for more than a year.
Moreover, Taylor and Swanson mention that two Libyan men were responsible for the Lockerbie bombing in 1998, which murdered all 259 passengers and 11 ground crew members. According to Taylor and Swanson, the bombing has responded to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi’s reaction to U.S. military efforts against his country. In 1983, the marine barracks in Lebanon were bombed, and in 1998, suicide bombers attacked the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Taylor and Swanson add that in 1993, extremist Muslims used a truck bomb to attack the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing six people and injuring 1,000 more. Finally, two suicide bombers detonated an explosive-laden skiff aboard the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, resulting in fatalities. (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). According to Taylor and Swanson, before 9/11, this era was referred to as old terrorism; it generally had clear political, social, and economic objectives; due to the narrow scope of the objectives, some could be resolved by negotiation.
The Evolution of Terrorism After September 11, 2001
The United States, since September 11, 2001, has faced a more varied, yet no less formidable, terrorist threat (Liberty University Online, 2021). After the September 11, 2001 attacks, America’s policy toward terrorism shifted to global counterterrorism (Farag, 2020). Also, Faraq adds that these events altered Americans’ perceptions of security risks, particularly those emanating from the Middle East and Arab states. According to Faraq (2020), the United States of America recognized its security vulnerability, and they are no longer safe from an assault on a worldwide scale or from inside. America’s strategic vision and domestic and foreign policy priorities shifted as a result of the new threat.
Also, Al Qaeda is the greatest threat to the U.S., although counterterrorism operations reduced their capability (Liberty University Online, 2021). Additionally, Liberty University Online suggests that after 9/11, the United States faced an existential danger from Al Qaeda. According to Liberty University Online (2021) new worldwide Jihadist movement inspired by Al Qaeda poses growing risks to the homeland. Since 9/11, Americans have traveled abroad to train as terrorists and join organizations, and those Americans may be used to assault their homeland, for example, ill-fated Long Island Railroad planned attack. Furthermore, rather than mass attacks, the U.S. faces lone wolf and small-scale strikes and must adopt policies for new threats (Liberty University Online, 2021). For example, Liberty University Online mentions a planned attack to use a hand grenade on a crowd of people.
Impact on The United States
The evolution of terrorism from a regional to a global issue has impacted the United States in many ways, such as the loss of troops, financial expenditures, and global threats (Liberty University Online, 2021). However, because of the global war on terror, an influential extremist group has been overlooked, white supremacists (Johnson, 2021). According to Johnson (2021), White supremacists have recently carried out a series of violent, deadly terror actions in the U.S. and other Western countries, including mass shootings at Black churches in South Carolina. Another impact on the United States is terrorism-related fear has been shown to alter people’s daily behaviors (Sloan et al., 2020). Finally, global problems that imperil our security and future have penetrated Americans’ minds, affecting their lifestyle (Ermann, 2020).
Cooperation at the regional and global levels is required to combat terrorism. Our Lord says, “Can two walk together, except they be agreed?” (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Amos 3:3). Also, our Lord says in Ephesians 4:3, “Endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.” Finally, our Lord says in 1 Corinthians 14:40, “Let all things be done decently and in order.”