Discuss one type of memory deficit, including what part of the brain is affected and how memory processing is interrupted
Memory deficit, more collectivity known as amnesia, “can result from brain damage caused by surgery, disease, and physical or psychological trauma” that affects all of the senses (Gazzaniga et al., 2019, pg. 282). As mentioned, memory loss can be caused by diseases in which can be a result in dementia. Dementia is a “general term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving and other thinking abilities that are severe enough to interfere with daily life” (Alzheimer’s Association, n.d.). Dementia in other words is the loss of cognitive function in different domains that can come with age (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Dementia is irreversible and are the result of neurodegenerative disease, vascular disease, or a combination of the two. One of the most common neurodegenerative diseases is Alzheimer’s disease which is caused by the pathological misfolding of particular proteins that are prone to aggregate in the brain (Gazzaniga et al., 2019).
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) contributes to sixty to seventy percent of dementia cases according to World Health Organization (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Alzheimer’s is thought to be caused by the abnormal build-up of proteins in and around brain cells. One of the proteins involved is called beta-amyloid in which forms plaques around brain cells, whereas the other protein is called tau that forms tangles within the brain cells. Additionally, the medial temporal lobe structures are the first to be affected in AD, then trickles down to lateral temporal, parietal, and formal neocortices (Gazzaniga et al., 2019). Depending on which tissues are affected depends on the progression of the disease. Lastly, since dementia is a loss of memory and Alzheimer’s disease falls under dementia, as this disease progresses, semantic, episodic and procedural memories all gradually erode. Due to this, people with AD had difficulty finding words, memories of significant events, and anything that may require multiple steps such as driving a car, might be loss (Esther, 2019).
Class, have you heard of anyone having Alzheimer’s disease before the age 50? If so, what symptoms have you noticed?